Landlord and Tenant Laws in India

Many stories regarding renting that are posted on social media make you rethink renting out your property as an owner or renting a place to live as a tenant. Owners frequently deal with issues like renters who delay paying rent or who make significant alterations to the property without authorization, and tenants occasionally deal with issues like being deprived of basic services and excessively intrusive owners. The fundamental tenants rules and regulations in India are something that most homeowners and renters are unaware of. By contacting the local rent authority, most problems experienced by either party may frequently be handled.

The Center has granted the states the authority to put the legislation into effect or make amendments based on their requirements. The Model Tenancy Act 2020, created by the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, is now being implemented in Chandigarh. The government of Maharashtra chose to enact two types of rent control regulations. The Karnataka tenancy act will protect current tenants, and the Model Tenancy Act will be introduced for new developments.

Common laws for both Landlord and Tenants in India

Here is a quick list that helps you to understand about Landlord and Tenants Laws in India:

A rental agreement is a need for both parties.

To be enforceable, the house rental must be set up in a written contract that has been prepared by a notary public and is signed by both the landlord and the renter. The legal rights of tenants without a contract are not legally binding and might result in issues for both the renter and the owner.

The rental agreement must specify the agreed-upon rent, any additional costs, the facilities offered at move-in, the rate and length of any rent increases, the term of the agreement, etc. The renter may potentially avoid paying rent if the owner fails to present an agreement since they legally have not yet rented the property. Still, the owner may also remove the tenant immediately as a result. Due to these problems, oral agreements must be avoided in favour of a documented, official legal agreement.

Maintenance of the property

According to the legislation, the tenant and the renter are jointly responsible for maintaining the rented property. Frequently, the rental agreement specifies this. For instance, the owner manages repairs of the facilities offered, particularly during the transfer.

This rule also ensures that neither the owner nor the renter alters the home significantly without the other party’s knowledge and consent. The owner cannot start painting the property while the renter resides there, nor is the tenant allowed to knock down a wall to create extra room. The security deposit may offset any damage caused by the renter that they refuse to pay for.

Paid-Up Rent

Before moving in, both parties must agree on the rent payment. The leasing agreement must also include this sum. Once this number is established, the landlord is prohibited from adding on additional fees or increasing the amount until the end of the contract’s specified grace period. The tenant is also not permitted to make a smaller payment after moving in. The property size, the facilities offered, and the neighbourhood all determine how much rent is typically set. Depending on the state you are in, this can be different.

Security Deposit

According to the Draft Model Tenancy, requiring a deposit greater than three months’ worth of rent is unlawful. This, however, depends on the state in which you reside. The security deposit must be specified in the rental agreement and agreed to in advance. Following a home vacation, the renter must receive the deposit money back. There may be no deductions other than those that have been agreed upon and specified in the agreement.

Landlord and Tenant

Laws for the owner of the property

Not everyone who purchases a home does so with the intention of living there. In India, many people purchase or build real estate with the intention of making an investment. They risk their whole life’s money on the building of a property, give up months of sweat equity, and endure sleepless nights maintaining the property and generating revenue by renting it out to renters. But despite their best efforts, some landlords still find themselves without money because they were unaware of their legal rights as landlords in India. It is somewhat true that most Indian laws are pro-tenant (and for good reason), but only to a certain extent. Here are some tenants rules and regulations India that are made for the security of the landlord that every tenant must follow:

TheTenant’s eviction
If a tenant doesn’t pay their rent for two months in a row, the landlord has the right to evict them and demand that they vacate right away. Additionally, a notice of eviction may be sent if the tenant vacates the property unannounced for a prolonged time, engages in unlawful activity on the property or creates a nuisance for other residents, breaches the terms of the lease, or sublets their residence. The landlord has the authority to double the rent as compensation if a tenant disobeys the eviction notice. Tenant’s right to be evicted by a landlord

Rent agreements may include guidelines and provisions that shield tenants from forcible eviction. In order to safeguard the landlord and his property from unfavourable circumstances, it may also contain rigorous provisions and guidelines for home eviction. Unexpected house evictions may occur for a variety of reasons, such as failure to pay rent, electricity or utility bills on time, illegally subletting the property, willful damage to the property, the use of the rental property for illegal purposes, antisocial behaviour that is against societal norms, and the expiration of the rental agreement. Therefore, as the property’s owner, the landlord has the authority to evict a bad tenant who disobeys any of the aforementioned restrictions outlined in the rental agreement.

The right to temporary possession recovery
The owner is entitled to retake control of the property, do the necessary maintenance work, and then hand it back to the renter if the residence in issue needs urgent repairs or renovations, needs adjustments, or is unsafe for habitation without repairs. Requests for property vacations must be supported by legal justification.

Unexpected circumstances may need you to make repairs or alterations to your home that can’t be done without the building being evacuated. In certain situations, the landlord has the power to temporarily seize the property and evict the tenant in order to make repairs, upkeep, additions, and structural changes to the structure. Keep in mind that you have the right to provide the renter advance notice in these sorts of circumstances as the landlord. The landlord is allowed to refund the rent or provide the renter with enough compensation for the inconvenience in exceptional cases when repairs must be made right away while the building is vacant.

The right to be informed of changes and repairs
While a tenant may do small repairs and adjustments, by law, tenants must notify the renter and obtain written permission before making any significant alterations. It is your duty as a landlord to make sure that the rental property is “habitable” and trouble-free for the renters. Landlords can avoid legal disputes and other problems brought on by renters if they have a clear rental agreement and a basic understanding of their legal rights in India.

Upkeep and Damage Repairs
Upon leaving, Post Renting Tenants must return the property to the owner in the same condition they found. The furnishings, gadgets, and other amenities must be returned and in good functioning order. The security deposit can be used to cover any property damage.

You are the only owner of your property as a landlord, and you are permitted to make repairs and maintain it with the tenant’s permission. The renter may, however, handle simple repairs to the property. However, in these situations, if the tenant is required to make small repairs and adjustments, the landlord has the right to be informed of the required repairs.

Increasing the rent
There are several laws in India governing rent in an effort to balance the rights and interests of both landlords and renters. The power of the landlord to raise the rent is heavily regulated, even though they are permitted to do so on a periodic basis and charge tenants of residential or commercial properties the going market rate for rent. The model tenancy legislation, 2019, states that a landlord cannot raise the rent during a rental term and must provide the tenant at least three months’ notice before doing so. In India, residential property rent typically rises at a rate of 10% annually, or every two years.

Tenant protection laws

Landlord and Tenant

Not only the landlord but the tenant also has some rights that he can enjoy when he is living in a property:

After renting out a property, a landlord cannot enter it without permission.
The owner does not have the authority to enter a rented-out property unless there is an emergency. For any other reason, the owner must give the renters a warning, and according to the law, “surprise checks” and other actions like these cannot be taken.

Unlivable Situations
We already spoke about how the owner and the renters are responsible for upkeep and repairs, the owner before a tenant comes in, and the tenant after possession. In the latter situation, the home is termed “uninhabitable”, and the tenant has the right to quit in just 15 days by submitting a notice if the cost of repairs exceeds 50% of the agreed-upon rent. To take action, they might also go to their local Rent Authority.

Availability of Basic Resources
Water, power, parking, communication linkages, sanitary services, etc., are fundamental rights of the renter and obligations of the property owner. The landlord cannot withhold these privileges even if the rent is not paid. Suppose a landlord does fail to provide necessary facilities. In that case, the tenant may file a complaint with the Rent Authority, which will conduct an inquiry and, if appropriate, fine the property owner.

Verbal contracts
Is your landlord requiring a verbal contract rather than a written one? Just refuse! Verbal agreements are not enforceable, and there is no proof to review in court if a disagreement arises. Therefore, a tenant must get a formal lease from the landlord that spells out all the terms of the arrangement. The majority of rental agreements are for a length of 11 months, and they must be renewed when that time comes.

Instantaneous eviction
Even if the landlord has legitimate grounds for eviction, they cannot remove you immediately. The rental agreement must specify how much advance notice must be given to the renter. The notice period is typically one month in most contracts.

Family of a dead tenant being evicted
The tenant’s legitimate heirs have the right to carry on the tenancy in the case of his passing. Without a good reason and a notice of eviction, the landlord cannot require the heirs of a dead tenant to leave the property. The immediate legal heirs of a tenant in whose name the lease agreement was established may remain in the property for five years after the tenant’s death, according to experts. However, since tenancy regulations can differ from state to state, it is essential to get legal guidance right once if you find yourself in such a predicament.

Rent from last month
Did your landlord request that you pay the rent for the remaining portion of your lease? Is he refusing to use the security deposit to pay the bills from the previous month? Refuse to accede to his requests. A landlord has no authority to request the previous month’s rent in lieu of deducting it from the security deposit.


In India, a rental agreement that complies with specific tenants rules and regulations India is necessary before renting or letting out a property for residential use. These guidelines are spelt out in a written contract between the landlord and the renter.

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